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Vertebral Segments
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The Vertebral Column extends from the skull to the pelvis and is made up of 33 individual bones termed vertebrae.

The vertebrae are composed of many elements that are critical to the overall function of the spine, these include:
• the Vertebal body that transfers the majority of the body weight through them,
• the Bony processes which provide attachment sites for muscles tendons and ligaments,
• the Intervertebral discs that provides shock absorption between the vertebrae,
• Facet joints that guide the movement of the spine.

The facet joints are like any of the other joints of the body. They have cartilage surfaces and a joint capsule with picture

Spinal Anatomy
associated supporting ligaments nerves and blood vessels.

Facet joints can be sprained like any other joint too when excessive or unusual forces are placed on them. They are responsible for the majority of Back and Neck pain.

The muscles of the vertebral column are extremely powerful as they are responsible for both movement and the support of it.

The back muscles attach to the Boney processes of the vertebrae and the Facet joints. Excessive contraction of these muscles during an accident or due to having bad posture or ergonomics can sprain the facet joints.

If you lift a 5kg weight with bad posture; your centre of gravity falls forwards and your back muscles have to lift the 5kg weight and the weight of your whole upper body!

If this force is transmitted through your facet joints they may be sprained or injured.

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Muscular Structure